17 Mar 2020

Evaluation Project at TdH NL

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TdH NL

Title: Child Trafficking for Domestic Work in Mwanza

Goal: Goal of the evaluation – Outline project impacts and lessons learnt

Goal of the project – Reduce child trafficking for domestic labour, in 8 wards in the Mwanza Region, by December 2019.

Objective/s: The project’s main purpose was to reduce child trafficking for domestic labour, in 8 wards in Mwanza Region, by December 2019.

Location: Region: Mwanza -Tanzania

Districts: Nyamagana, Ilemela, Misungwi, Sengerema and Magu

Wards: Nyamagana, Buhongwa, Ngegezi, Buzuruga, Kitangiri, Kirumba, Nyamanaro and Kayenze.

Period: January 2018 – December 2019

Beneficiaries:

Children: 1,500 (200 boys, 1300 girls) safeguarded (identified and rescued,provided with shelter and counselling, reintegration, life skills and remedial education) and 400 supported with educational services and 130 provided with Legal Aid.

16,970 children directly and 4730 indirectly reached through awareness creation activities.

Caregivers/parents: 500 caregivers of child victims of trafficking provided with counselling and parenting education.

Community members: ​20,000 community members in the 8 wards in Mwanza directly reached through awareness on how to protect their children from trafficking while 28,000 reached indirectly while 260 Opinion Leaders supported in identifying and reporting cases of child trafficking.

Government officials: ​150 government officials.

Law enforcement officers: ​150 judiciary and law enforcement officers.

CSO representatives: 7​5 direct and 75 indirectly targeted for training on child trafficking and roles of government, private sector and employers in promoting children’s rights.

Private sector: 35 entities (approximately 1,000 individuals directly and 500 individuals indirectly) engaged in their role in child protection.

Implementing partner (s): Kiota Women Health and Development Organization (KIWOHEDE)

  1. Background

In 2015 the US Department of Labour revealed that despite the Government’s efforts advanced to eliminate child labour, children in Tanzania still engage in domestic work, and other forms of labour. According to Tanzanian law, it is prohibited to employ children below the age of 14 for light work, and children below the age of 18 for hazardous work. However, major cities such as Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mbeya, Mwanza and Zanzibar harbour large numbers of working children. The exact numbers of children working as domestic workers in Tanzania and Mwanza in particular is not known, however, in 2015, KIVULINI (a local NGO) estimated that about 50,000 children were working in the Mwanza region as child domestic workers and reported this number was growing.

The US Department of State established in 2014 that the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continued to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem. Some unscrupulous individuals manipulate the traditional practice of child fostering – in which poor children are entrusted into the care of wealthier relatives or respected members of the community – to subject children to forced labour. Research has confirmed that in the Lake Zone and Singida areas, Mwanza is a source, transit and destination region for trafficked children.

Contributing factors to this phenomenon include: widespread poverty, limited educational opportunities and urbanisation. Gender plays a key role as cultural practices favour girls for domestic work (although a number of boys are also trafficked for domestic labour). The prospect of making easy money pushes families to send their children (mostly under 18 years of age) to work rather than sending them to school.

Child domestic workers are forced to live and work away from their homes, denying them their right to make friends and socialise. These children work under difficult conditions; experiencing sexual and physical abuses, cruelty, lack of psychosocial care and eventually they are denied opportunities to develop.

In recent years there has been some interventions from the government and various stakeholders in regards to child trafficking and child domestic work. The government of Tanzania has made several efforts to combat the crime of human trafficking by enacting different national laws, policies and regulations. It has ratified most of the international instruments for child protection including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Optional Protocol on Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and that on Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict. Tanzania is however, yet to ratify the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption which is also an issue of concern when it comes to child trafficking.

Furthermore the 1977 Tanzania Constitution provides for human rights which are against child labour and trafficking. Tanzania has also enacted the anti-trafficking Act of 2008. The 2008 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act outlaws all forms of trafficking and prescribes punishments of one to ten years’ imprisonment. The law also has established the anti- trafficking committee of whom KIWOHEDE has been working in partnership to curb child trafficking. The government also enacted the Law of the Child act (2009) which under part VII provides for the employment of a child in light work and prohibits exploitative labour, sex employment, night work for children. Currently there is no specific provision in Tanzania which strictly applies to child domestic workers.

Since 2014, KIWOHEDE has been in partnership with Terre des Hommes Netherlands (TdH-NL) on various themes. KIWOHEDE is a leading local child protection organisation in Tanzania with many years of experience in child protection. It implements projects addressing various themes in child protection including child marriage, CSEC, child trafficking and child domestic work.

KIWOHEDE has been implementing a two year project on countering child trafficking for domestic labour in Mwanza and with funding from TdH-NL/Porticus seeks to carry out an end of project evaluation to outline the project’s impacts and lessons learnt from the implementation of the just concluded interventions.

The Goal of the Project:

The project’s main purpose is to reduce child trafficking for domestic labour, in 8 wards in Mwanza Region, by December 2019.

End outcomes:

  • Families and communities in Mwanza report cases of child trafficking for domestic labour and child abuse/exploitation cases to formal and informal structures in Mwanza
  • Private sector entities engaged by the project adopt codes of conduct protecting children from Child trafficiking/Child abuse
  • Child victims of trafficking for domestic work and those at risk in the project areas actively approach duty bearers and discuss needs regarding child rights abuses.
  • CSOs actively engage their constituency (private sector, government and law enforcement officers) to advocate for identified child rights issue(s)
  • Law enforcement agencies diligently prosecute child abuse/exploitation cases accountable for upholding children’s rights
  • Government(social welfare officers, District Child Protection Teams) institutions adequately implement laws and policies protecting children

Specific Objectives of the project:

  1. To enhance awareness on child trafficking among children, families, communities and the private sector in 8 wards in Mwanza City and in other districts of Mwanza Region (source areas) by December 2019
  2. To provide victim ­friendly referral and protection services to child trafficking victims
  3. To improve the capacity of law enforcement authorities to investigate and prosecute cases of child trafficking under the anti­ trafficking legislation in 8 wards in the Mwanza Region by December 2019
  4. To lobby the government for the implementation of anti trafficking laws and policies within 8 wards in the Mwanza Region by December 2019

3. Evaluation purpose and use

The evaluation aims to assess the programme’s relevance, effectiveness and sustainability of its results. The evaluation will also assess the efficiency of the project management structure. The study’s main focus will be on effectiveness, by providing both qualitative and descriptive quantitative information on the programme’s progress, and the degree and quality of change brought about during the programme’s implementation. Where possible, indicators and results from the baseline will be utilised to quantify and measure the degree of change in the final evaluation.

The evaluation will serve as an important accountability tool for partners including Porticus as well as programme beneficiaries. It will also serve as a learning tool for future programmes focusing on elimination of child trafficking and unsafe migration.

4. Evaluation objectives

4.1 Main objective of the evaluation

The main objective of the evaluation is to examine the extent to which the project has brought change to different groups of stakeholders, regarding child trafficking for child labour and to also find out to what extent the project goals were achieved as well as identify key areas that can be replicated in similar interventions.

The Specific objectives of the evaluation will be:

  • To examine the extent to which the project goal was achieved (Impact)
  • To examine the extent to which the objectives of the intervention were achieved as a result of the implementation of planned activities (Effectiveness)
  • To examine the extent to which the project interventions were relevant to the needs of the beneficiaries as well as other identified stakeholders (Relevance)
  • To examine the extent to which programme partnership has influenced results in the intervention (Partnership Performance)
  • To examine to what extent will the benefits of the project continue after the project ends (Sustainability)

5. Evaluation Scope

5.1 Time period and geographical area

The proposed evaluation time frame is between 6th April – 8th May 2020. The endline evaluation activities will span a period of approximately 20 working days. The evaluation will focus on Child Trafficking & Migration (CTM) interventions undertaken in the Mwanza Region in Tanzania within the 5 project districts (Nyamagana, Ilemela, Misungwi, Sengerema and Magu). The evaluation will be based on the envisaged tasks indicated below:

Activity:

  • Inception meeting with the relevant TdH-NL team members and introduction to partner organisation/staff.
  • Literature review of project documents, development of tools and methodology, development and submission of inception report with evaluation methodology, schedules and tools.
  • Finalising data collection tools based on comments from TdH-NL & pretest of tools
  • Training of enumerators if relevant
  • Field data collection (inclusive of travel)
  • Data entry, analysis, selection of case stories and submission of Zero Draft Report
  • Revision of Zero Draft Report based on TdH-NL’s comments (via hangout/skype where necessary)
  • Oral presentation meeting in the region
  • Incorporating feedback and finalise report

5.2 Scope of Evaluation

The scope of the evaluation includes review and assessment of all activities carried out under the TdH-NL and KIWOHEDE partners agreement. This will be done in line with the baseline study review. All activities that have been implemented from project inception to the end of the project (January 2018 – December 2019) should be considered. The evaluation should assess the achievements of the project in reaching its targets and objectives as outlined in the project documents and presented above. The geographical location of the evaluation is as indicated above. (Within Mwanza region this includes: Sengerema and Magu as source areas; Misungwi and Magu as transit areas; Nyamagana and Ilemela districts as destination areas.)

6. Evaluation criteria

The evaluation criteria will include Impact, Effectiveness, Relevance, Efficiency, Sustainability, Coherence and Child Participation. Evaluators may propose any other additional criteria that are relevant to the endline evaluation subject to approval by TdH-NL.

7. Evaluation questions

The key questions that need to be answered by this evaluation should assess the impact of the project interventions as per the above evaluation criteria:

Relevance:

How relevant were the objectives and activities, implemented by the project, in addressing the needs of the target population in Mwanza? How do beneficiaries perceive the relevance of the project and how have the activities implemented improved their lives? Are there any stories of change? Relevance questions will seek to check:

  • How has the programme identified and addressed the needs of the key stakeholders such as children, their families and communities?
  • To what extent has the programme taken into consideration the legal framework (including government policies, at national and sub-national level) as well as private sector policies in addressing child trafficking?
  • To what extent have the project objectives proven to have been appropriate for the intervention?

Effectiveness:

How has the collaboration between TdH-NL, local partners, CSOs and government line ministries contributed to appropriate response of specific needs and priorities of the beneficiaries? To what extent was the project able to adapt and provide appropriate response to context changes and emerging local needs, and the priorities of beneficiaries?

  • Status of the existing coordination, collaboration and referral mechanisms among the child protection stakeholders/actors in supporting prevention and providing response services for victims of child trafficking in the Mwanza region
  • Capacity of key government and local service providers in responding to the needs of children who are at risk and victims (children trafficked for domestic work)
  • Extent to which the law enforcement agencies diligently prosecute child abuse/exploitation cases accountable for upholding children’s rights
  • Extent to which the Government of Tanzania (Social Welfare officers, District Child Protection Teams) institutions adequately implement laws and policies protecting children from child trafficking
  • Awareness level of the private sector actors in Mwanza Region on child rights, including support to end child trafficking for domestic labour
  • Extent to which private sector entities engaged by the project adopted codes of conduct protecting children from CT/Child abuse

Efficiency:

Efficiency questions will be considered in light of the partnership between Porticus, TdH-NL and KIWOHEDE, as well as the level of collaboration with other CSOs in delivery of services for children during the project implementation period. Questions on efficiency will include:

  • What would have been opportunities within the project to reach more beneficiaries with the available budget or to reduce costs while reaching at least the same number of beneficiaries without compromising quality?
  • Have the programmatic (PMEL) tools and practices contributed to a dynamic partnership? Which ones have addressed efficiency concerns most and how?

Impact:

How has the project changed the operating environment in Mwanza since inception in relation to trafficking of children for domestic labour including prevalence. How did the TdH-NL project contribute to these changes?

  • Has child trafficking prevalence reduced from the prevalence at baseline? Are the children aware of where to report cases of child trafficking (CT)? Were the children rescued from CT adequately protected from further trafficking related harm?
    According to Palermo Protocol Article 3 defines trafficking as follows:

(a) “Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used.

(c) the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article;

(d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.

  • Are parents and communities engaged in preventing (in our context: championing in identifying children at risk of trafficking and referring them for relevant support) and reporting suspected cases of child trafficking and unsafe migration (CTUM) to formal and informal structures in Mwanza?
  • What positive changes are observed in the lives of the target group as a result of the implementation of the project?
  • What are the unintended positive and negative impacts of the project? Did the response reduce future vulnerabilities to child trafficking?

Sustainability:

The evaluation will also seek to answer questions on sustainability, mainly:

  • Will the changes caused by this programme continue beyond the life of the project?
  • Did the programme work with any local partners and did the intervention increase the capacity of the local partners? Do the partners have resources to maintain the benefits of the intervention ?
  • What are the risks facing sustainability of programme outputs and outcomes?

Coherence:

  • How were the project interventions aligned to other actions within the child protection space within and without the Mwanza region? Were synergies built, strengthened and accessed to ensure quality and sustainable delivery of outputs, as well as attainment of outcomes?
  • To what extent did CSOs actively engage their constituency (private sector, government and law enforcement officers) to advocate for identified child rights issues?

Child Participation:

  • To what extent did the girls and boys participate in the project interventions?
  • At what stage of the project intervention were children involved?
  • In what ways did the children participate?

8. Evaluation Methodology and Approach

8.1 Methodology and Approach:

In collaboration with the M&E team, a detailed methodology plan will be made during the inception phase. The focus will be on the finalisation and operationalisation of methods and tools to measure programme progress. This phase will include an update of data collection methods, including

  1. Proposed methodology for any child targeted data collection ( and ensuring it is designed in a child safe manner)
  2. Designing data collection and reporting tools for assessment of changes for all other identified stakeholders
  3. Propose a detailed way of measuring contribution

To sufficiently address the specific objectives, it is proposed that the methodology to be used should allow involvement of children, local communities, CSOs, government (local and national) and project implementers in key evaluation tasks. Existing project documents, progress reports and other relevant documents will be shared by the teams of TdH-NL and KIWOHEDE. The evaluator is expected to conduct the evaluation in a rigorous manner to produce information that is valid and reliable based on quality data and analysis. As a result during the inception phase, the evaluator will produce an agreed detailed action plan and elucidate the data collection, process and analysis methods for the evaluation as well as data dissemination plans.

9. Deliverables

In accordance with the timetable, the evaluator(s) will produce:

  • Inception Report
    A draft inception report which responds to the scope of work with the methodology, survey instruments, detailed work plan and budget. The inception report should include a review of Child Trafficking for Domestic Work issues in Tanzania (Mwanza) and propose ethical and feasible evaluation methodologies to respond to the evaluation questions, propose data collection tools to be used and provide a schedule of evaluation activities and tasks. The report should be in English.
  • A field work implementation plan (to be submitted before field work begins)
    This field work plan should be presented to the TdH-NL Country office for M&E team comments, and revised as necessary prior to commencing field work.
  • Zero Draft End line Report
    A comprehensive draft end term evaluation report including a clear set of actionable recommendations. The Draft Report will analyse and provide tangible evidence showing the situation of Child Trafficking for Domestic Work.
  • Revised End line Report
    A final end term evaluation report incorporating feedback from TdH-NL. The Revised Report will synthesise all data, Most Significant Change stories, identify conclusions, and make recommendations (Taking into account comments and additions from TdH-NL following submission of the Zero Draft Report) and should be written in English. The consultant will need to provide a response to TdH-NL, in the form of a comment matrix, as to why any comments may not have been incorporated.
  • Develop a set of monitoring tools to be used by TdH-NL to adequately measure results and objective/impact
  • Oral Presentation/Meeting and debrief with project staff
    The consultant will make a presentation to TdH-NL and its partners, of the findings of the evaluation, including lessons for project improvement. The debriefing meeting will be an opportunity to clarify outstanding aspects of the end line survey before finalisation of the end line report.
  • The Final Report
    The consultant will be expected to produce in English a final report, with comments from the debriefing taken into account. While the substantive content of the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the report shall be determined by the evaluator, the report is subject to final approval by TdH-NL in terms of whether or not the report meets the conditions of the ToR and expected standards.
  • Dissemination Workshop
    After the evaluation report is finalised, TdH-NL will organise a dissemination workshop with its key stakeholders. The consultant is expected to co-facilitate the workshop and present the results of the survey.

TdH-NL will oversee the process and maintain responsibility for accountability and guidance throughout all phases of execution, and approval of all deliverables. The project partner (KIWOHEDE) will offer day to day support to the evaluator in terms of organising meetings with the target groups as requested by the evaluator.

10. Budget

Financial proposal should be included which outlines all costs required for conducting the evaluation.

11. Evaluator(s) Competencies, Experience and Skill requirements

The team for this assignment will consist of the consultant(s) who will have overall responsibility for designing, implementing and coordinating the entire endline survey process guided by the ToR.

The evaluator(s) engaged to undertake the assignment must fulfil the following requirements in terms of knowledge, skills and expertise:

  • The lead consultant or coordinator is required to have a Master Degree in Social Sciences, Community Development or other related fields
  • Sound understanding of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Code of Conduct and UN Global Compact
  • A minimum of five-year experience working in the field of children’s issues and child protection programmes
  • Has an excellent understanding of issues related to Child Trafficking in East Africa
  • Strong commitment to and proven experience of utilising child participatory methodologies
  • Knowledgeable in and committed to a Rights Based Approach to development
  • Has proven experience in conducting evaluations and research using various methodologies such as in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions etc.
  • Experience in working with NGOs, CBOs and beneficiary communities
  • Excellent communication skills in written and spoken English; good command of spoken Kiswahili (for the field research)
  • Excellent analytical, report writing, interpersonal and teamwork skills
  • Dedicated to completing the assignment within the timeframe agreed
  • Is familiar with geographical areas in Tanzania and is willing to travel and is flexible to manage changing circumstances
  • Is familiar with Tanzanian social and cultural norms, and attitudes especially in relation to child trafficking, sexual exploitation and abuse, child labour

12. Management and supervision

The evaluator(s) will work in close consultation with TdH-NL’s Country team and Regional PM&E Coordinator for the coordination of the end-term evaluation.

The Country Office in collaboration with KIWOHEDE will provide preparatory and logistical assistance to the evaluator(s), including:

  • Background materials (project proposal, quarterly report data, annual reports, rapid assessment report etc))
  • Meetings, phone/email communication with relevant TdH-NL staff
  • Identify interviewees and provide contact information as may be requested by the lead evaluator
  • All logistical support for the field visit
  • Arranging meetings and appointments with stakeholders and beneficiaries in the field (if necessary)

13. Child Safeguarding Measures

In line with the UNCRC, Terre des Hommes Netherlands strives to keep children safe in all its undertakings. A screening and reference check of the successful candidate will be conducted during the selection process. The successful applicant will be required to read, understand, and commit to abide by TdH-NL’s Child Safeguarding Policies and Guidelines. The institution/firm or individual consultant will sign the policies to indicate an understanding of, and commitment to follow the policy requirements. The methodologies used in this evaluation must abide by the universally acceptable standards for involving children in research. Special considerations will have to be taken in involving children who are survivors of sexual exploitation, ensuring the risk of retraumatisation is sufficiently mitigated.

13.1 Ethical Considerations

All participants involved in the assessment are expected to be treated with dignity and respect, and participation in the study will be voluntary. Confidentiality and the right to privacy should be ensured. Consent will be obtained from all participants prior to their participation. Interviewing children will only be done for children above 12 years, with the consent of their parents/caregivers and if they themselves are comfortable about participating and providing information. Where a child has been a victim of exploitation and abuse and shows signs of distress, a clear referral for counselling and psychosocial support should be done.

There will be nothing in the study which may be harmful for the respondents in terms of legal or ethical grounds. The research objectives will be clearly explained to all the respondents of the study before collecting data from them. The consultant/ firm will abstain from data collection from any person who will deny or show any reluctance in providing information. Written consent with signature or thumb impression of the respondents, therefore, needs to be obtained before collecting data. The researchers will be highly committed to the respondents to guard the privacy of their information and sources of data, as well as will put heartiest endeavour to be unbiased in collecting data. The research report will not reveal the identity of the respondents.

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      Method of Application

TdH-NL Tanzania country office invites interested individuals and companies to submit the following application documents:

  1. Technical proposal (max. 10 pages) outlining their motivation for the application, the methodological approach on how to conduct the assignment, and the resources required (documents, survey questions, FGD and KII checklists, etc).
  2. A proposed activities schedule/ work plan with a time frame.
  3. Copy of the CV of the evaluator (s) who will undertake the end term evaluation.
  4. One recent example of a similar evaluation report written by the applicant.
  5. Financial itemised proposal detailing evaluators’ fees, data collection and administrative costs.

Interested applicants should submit Technical and Financial proposals electronically in PDF format, addressed to “The Selection Committee”, with subject line clearly marked “EOI End Term Evaluation CT for Domestic Work in Mwanza” via email on or before the 22nd March 2020 to: [email protected].

The aim is to select the evaluator by 31st March 2020 and start the assignment on 6th April 2020.

 





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